image: Bible historiale commissioned by Jean Vaudetar, The Hague, Museum Meermanno-Westreenianum
Scholars have long noted the innovations in this miniature in the representation of space and the creation of an individualized as opposed to conventionalized portrait. The miniature has a plausible sense of space with what has been characterized as a diaphragm arch marking the entrance into the space and the shaded green floor which recedes as a groundplane into depth. The foreshortening of the canopy over the head of Charles V further creates a sense of space under which Charles sits. 
Comparably the faces of Charles and Vaudetar show strong individualization. Charles’s long nose, thin face, and high cheekbones are all comparatively consistent in his portraits and conform to literary descriptions of his features. Even the detail of Charles holding a glove in his right hand might be a personal reference. Charles is known to have worn a glove to relieve the effects of gout. He has apparently taken off this glove to examine the book.The portrait of Vaudetar likewise gives the impression of individualization.
Charles V
(Vaudetar was Charles’ valet)

image: Bible historiale commissioned by Jean Vaudetar, The Hague, Museum Meermanno-Westreenianum

Scholars have long noted the innovations in this miniature in the representation of space and the creation of an individualized as opposed to conventionalized portrait. The miniature has a plausible sense of space with what has been characterized as a diaphragm arch marking the entrance into the space and the shaded green floor which recedes as a groundplane into depth. The foreshortening of the canopy over the head of Charles V further creates a sense of space under which Charles sits.

Comparably the faces of Charles and Vaudetar show strong individualization. Charles’s long nose, thin face, and high cheekbones are all comparatively consistent in his portraits and conform to literary descriptions of his features. Even the detail of Charles holding a glove in his right hand might be a personal reference. Charles is known to have worn a glove to relieve the effects of gout. He has apparently taken off this glove to examine the book.The portrait of Vaudetar likewise gives the impression of individualization.

Charles V

(Vaudetar was Charles’ valet)