This hand-colored woodcut shows a wheel and chart that classify urine samples in order to aid physicians in diagnosing diseases. In the middle of the wheel, a doctor follows the medical practice of uroscopy—the meticulous inspection of a patient’s urine by sight, smell, and taste. The color and consistency of the urine was particularly important, as indicated by the vials on the wheel and the chart. Ulrich Pinder (d. ca. 1510 or 1519), a Nuremberg physician, wrote this richly annotated practical medical handbook that contains sections on uroscopy, the heart and pulse, and classification of fevers.