A German historian named William Pehle, asserted that bowling began in Germany around 300 AD. Monks would set up pins called kegels, which represented human sins or temptations. They would then throw stones at the pins, thus conquering sin. Kegling is another term for bowling, even today. There are records indicating that some variation of bowling has been played throughout history all over the world.
image: Bruegel’s “Children’s Games” (Detail) 1560
Entire piece 6567x4770!
How did people keep meat fresh in the Middle Ages?
One of the techniques was to dig cellars in the ground, inlay them with large stones covered with straw and put massive blocks of ice specially transported from the mountains, for example. This could preserve food for even a year.
Also, farmers used to put meat in large barrels filled with lard.
image: Butcher’s Stall (1551) Pieter Aertsen
Richard III dig update:
Results expected in January
Archaeologists who discovered a skeleton thought to be Richard III have said it could be January before tests confirm whether it is the former king.
image: King Richard III, by unknown artist, given to the National Portrait Gallery, London in 1862
Dante gazes at Mount Purgatory (c. 1530)
Kissing Custom at the Feast of Boyar* Morozov (1895)
*Member of the upper stratum of medieval Russian society and state administration. In Kievan Rus during the 10th–12th century, the boyars constituted the senior group in the prince’s retinue (druzhina) and occupied the higher posts in the armed forces and in the civil administration. (Britannica)
Dancing and singing (also known as “peasants returning from work”)
Ma Yuan (China, ca.1160-1225)
Ink and color on silk, 192.5 × 111 cm
Born in what is now the city of Hangzhou, Ma Yuan (ca.1160-1225) is not only the great master of Southern Song painting, but for the quality of his drawing and the variety of his compositions he should also be placed at the pinnacle of Chinese painting from any era.
The Battle of Visby was fought in 1361 near the town of Visby on the island of Gotland, between the forces of the Danish king and the Gutnish country yeomen. The Danish force was victorious.
Following the devastating battle, the citizens of Visby decided to surrender to avoid further losses. To save the city from sacking the inhabitants paid large amount of their wealth to King Valdemar. This extortion of contributions became a legendary event, although it can not be confirmed to have taken place, and if so, the events are unclear. Despite the payment, the Danes plundered several churches and monasteries.
Image: Valdemar Atterdag holding Visby to ransom, 1361, Carl Gustaf Hellqvist